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Monday, July 28, 2008

Wikipedia, A short History!

Wikipedia is a free, multilingual, open content encyclopedia project operated by the United States-based non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites) and encyclopedia. Launched in 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, it attempts to collect and summarize all human knowledge in every major language.

As of April 2008, Wikipedia had over 10 million articles in 253 languages, comprising a combined total of over 1.74 billion words.[citation needed] The English edition, the largest language edition, had over 2,400,000 articles as of July 2008. Wikipedia's articles have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world, and nearly all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the Internet. Having steadily risen in popularity since its inception, it is currently the largest and most popular general reference work on the Internet.
Critics of Wikipedia target its systemic bias and inconsistencies and its policy of favoring consensus over credentials in its editorial process. Wikipedia's reliability and accuracy are also an issue. Other criticisms are centered on its susceptibility to vandalism and the addition of spurious or unverified information. Scholarly work suggests that vandalism is generally short-lived.

In addition to being an encyclopedic reference, Wikipedia has received major media attention as an online source of breaking news as it is constantly updated. When Time Magazine recognized "You" as its Person of the Year 2006, praising the accelerating success of on-line collaboration and interaction by millions of users around the world, Wikipedia was the first particular "Web 2.0" service mentioned, followed by YouTube and MySpace.

Wikipedia in Brief

Slogan :The free encyclopedia that anyone can edit.

Alexa rank: #8

Commercial? :No

Type of site: Online encyclopedia

Registration: Optional

Available language(s): 236 active editions (253 in total)[2]

Owner :Wikimedia Foundation

Created by :Jimmy Wales, Larry Sanger[3]

Launched: January 15, 2001(2001-01-15)

Current status: perpetual work-in-progress

Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. Nupedia was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, Inc, a web portal company. Its main figures were Jimmy Wales, Bomis CEO, and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed initially under its own Nupedia Open Content License, switching to the GNU Free Documentation License before Wikipedia's founding at the urging of Richard Stallman.

Visitors to in 2008 Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales are the founders of Wikipedia While Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, Sanger is usually credited with the counter-intuitive strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Larry Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia. Wikipedia was formally launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at, and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list. Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" was codified in its initial months, and was similar to Nupedia's earlier "nonbiased" policy. Otherwise, there were relatively few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia.

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and search engine indexing. It grew to approximately 20,000 articles, and 18 language editions, by the end of 2001. By late 2002 it had reached 26 language editions, 46 by the end of 2003, and 161 by the final days of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers went down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. English Wikipedia passed the 2,000,000-article mark on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, eclipsing even the Yongle Encyclopedia (1407), which had held the record for exactly 600 years.

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in a perceived English-centric Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002. Later that year, Wales announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and its website was moved to Various other projects have since forked from Wikipedia for editorial reasons. Wikinfo does not require neutral point of view and allows original research. New Wikipedia-inspired projects — such as Citizendium, Scholarpedia, Amapedia and Google's Knol — have been started to address perceived limitations of Wikipedia, such as its policies on peer review, original research and commercial advertising.

The Wikimedia Foundation was created from Wikipedia and Nupedia on June 20, 2003. It applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17, 2004. The mark was granted registration status on January 10, 2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16, 2004, and in the European Union on January 20, 2005. Technically a service mark, the scope of the mark is for: "Provision of information in the field of general encyclopedic knowledge via the Internet". There are plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs.

Software and hardware

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open source wiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database. The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License and used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects.

Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of GNU/Linux servers, 300 in Florida, 26 in Amsterdam, and 23 in Yahoo!'s Korean hosting facility in Seoul. Wikipedia employed a single server until 2004, when the server setup was expanded into a distributed multitier architecture. In January 2005, the project ran on 39 dedicated servers located in Florida. This configuration included a single master database server running MySQL, multiple slave database servers, 21 web servers running the Apache HTTP Server, and seven Squid cache servers.

Wikipedia receives between 20,000 and 45,000 page requests per second, depending on time of day. Page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Squid caching servers. Requests that cannot be served from the Squid cache are sent to load-balancing servers running the Linux Virtual Server software, which in turn pass the request to one of the Apache web servers for page rendering from the database. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia. To increase speed further, rendered pages for anonymous users are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses. Two larger clusters in the Netherlands and Korea now handle much of Wikipedia's traffic load.

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Quarter Bottles for Meter Persons !

A bottle is a container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a "mouth." Bottles are often made of glass, clay, plastic or other impervious materials, and typically used to store liquids such as water, milk, soft drinks, beer, wine, cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, ink and chemicals. A device applied in the bottling line to seal the mouth of a bottle is termed a bottle cap (external), or stopper (internal). A bottle can also be sealed using induction sealing.
The bottle has developed over millennia of use, with some of the earliest examples appearing in China, Phoenicia, Rome and Crete. The Chinese used bottles to store liquids.
In modern times for some bottles a legally mandated deposit is paid, which is refunded after returning the bottle to the retailer. For other glass bottles there is often separate garbage collection for recycling.


Since prehistoric times, bottle containers were created from clay or asphaltum sealed woven containers. Early glass bottle manufacture was conducted by the Phoenicians; specimens of Phoenician translucent and transparent glass bottles have been found in Cyprus and Rhodes generally varying in length from three to six inches. These Phoenician examples from the first millennium BC were thought to have been used for perfume. The Romans learned glass-making from the Phoenicians and produced many extant examples of fine glass bottles, mostly relatively small.

For wine
Glass bottle was an important development in the history of wine, because, when combined with a high-quality stopper such as a cork, it allowed long-term aging of wine. Glass has all qualities required for long-term storage. It eventually gave rise to "château bottling," the practice where an estate's wine is put in bottle at the source, rather than by a merchant. Prior to this, wine would be sold by the barrel (and before that, the amphora) and put into bottles only at the merchant's shop, if at all. This left a large and often abused opportunity for fraud and adulteration, as the consumer had to trust the merchant as to the contents. It is thought that most wine consumed outside of wine-producing regions had been tampered with in some way. Also, not all merchants were careful to avoid oxidation or contamination while bottling, leading to large bottle variation. Particularly in the case of port, certain conscientious merchants' bottling of old ports fetch higher prices even today. To avoid these problems, most fine wine is bottled at the place of production (including all port, since 1974).

There are many sizes and shapes of bottles used for wine. Some of the known shapes:

--->"Bordeaux": This bottle is roughly straight sided with a curved "shoulder" that is useful for catching sediment and is also the easiest to stack. Traditionally used in Bordeaux but now worldwide, this is probably the most common type.

---> "Burgundy": Traditionally used in Burgundy, this has sides that taper down about 2/3rds of the height to a short cylindrical section, and does not have a shoulder.

--->"Champagne": Traditionally used for Champagne, it is similar to a Burgundy bottle, but with a wider base and heavier due to the pressurization.

Aluminum bottles

The aluminum beverage bottle, also known as a bottlecan, is made of recyclable aluminum. Beer, soft drinks, alternative beverages and wine have all been packaged in aluminum beverage bottles. CCL Container and Mistic Brands, Inc., part of the Snapple Beverage Group, teamed up in 2002 for the national launch of Mistic RĒ. The result was a recyclable packaging innovation that utilized aluminum and plastic, leveraging the best properties of each in a practical, attractive and groundbreaking aluminum bottle with a resealable lug cap that fits snugly onto a unique plastic sleeve. The aluminum bottlecan is an ecological alternative to plastic bottles. Shaped similar to the traditional glass beverage bottle, the aluminum beverage bottle is available in a broad range of profiles, styles and configurations for commercial production. CCL Container, North America’s leading producer of impact-extruded aluminum packaging offers a variety of shapes, including “traditional,” “oval,” and “sport.” Resealable lids are also available as a cap option. Some studies have concluded that aluminum provides for increased insulation keeping beverages cooler longer than glass.

Friday, July 25, 2008

Cheap Glass for long good eyes

You may have find many of eye-glass which are cheap in nature, but did you know that how it may affects you eyes. It effects directly on you eye lenses. You should first protect that from use of bad and low classed also cheap rated glasses from local eye glass makers.

I found a good website which will assure you the quality of glass they give it to you, the site is which is no.1 spectical maker for present time. We may use glass for may purposes they are :

1. For Style

2.To Protect eyes

3. For eye problems

4. To showoff to girl/boys ...... the list goes on.

This zennioptical company sells the huge stylish specticals online, which is also secured to everyone. This company has huge good frames, potochromic lens, .... the list goes on increasing because the company has the good name, we no need to explain about it. One more thing is if you purchase glass from a specticals' store if may increase the cost of the specticals because of middlemans, if you purchase from your cost of purchasing reduces because there are not middleman and not a single advertising.;jsessionid=7AC86B4EE9EEC0FA4750BC35C68C8A25?contentId=5835241&version=3&locale=EN-US&layoutCode=VSTY&pageId=1.1.1&sflg=1 for Zenni Optical was on FOX news!

I request you to use the glass at cheaper rates, but at your less expenses. That is if you use glass for style you can find from this link for Incredible Stylish New Frames From Zenni. Click this link for Zenni Optical $ 8 Rx Eyeglasses.

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Saturday, June 21, 2008

Plan before doing anything

Tour! This word usually attracts everyone because; tour is needed in everyone’s life. As soon we go to tour we will come out of our tensions, we go to a world, which takes us to an place, which seems like a heaven.

Once I went to a place, which is located in Karnataka. The place is known for it’s production of Coffee, Tea and Honey. The place is Madikeri, this place is also called as Coorg, Koorg, Kodagu…. Etc.., I went with my cousins, which was good experience in my life. We went on the month of May 2008, we spent nearly 4 days in that place, the important place including Abbe Falls, Omkareshwara Temple, Bramha Giri Hill, Talakaveri, and other nearby places of Madikeri it includes, Kushal Nagar.

Without proper plan we went to Madikeri, due to which we have suffered a lot, without deciding out budget, places to see, hotel (lodge) to stay and food there to eat. We went through a Volvo Bus, arrived to Madikeri morning 5:00 A.M. the place of cool and calm on that time. Due to lack of plan we need to depend on the people of Madikeri for everything (which was good and bad experience). As per my view we should plan before going to any new place.

This month (i.e. June) I again went to Madikeri, this time I planned properly to go to this place, my friend suggested (Mr. Saran Raj, his site this site helped me in selecting a Hotel, rates. We will be having good hotels with fare rates, but hotelscombined helps in searching more than one hotel rate at once. Hotels may be good and fare, but we need with good service with this. This time with the help of hotelscombined I took enough money, I also brought some of the goods from Madikeri (including HONEY).

So, if you are going to new places I suggest you to plan before at least 3 weeks (we planned in one day, but we reached safely), which helps you to visit maximum places in that place, and maximum entertainment with minimum money.


Thursday, June 28, 2007

Interesting Milk Facts You Probably Did Not Know!

Interesting Milk Facts You Probably Did Not Know!


Monday, June 04, 2007

A Silly Little Wish

I looked up.
I saw a shooting star,
I saw a shooting star in the dark sky.
I made a wish,
I made a wish to be with you.
I looked down.
I saw a penny,
I saw a penny on the gravel.
I made a wish,
I made a wish to be with you.
I looked to the right.
I saw birthday candles,
I saw birthday candles on a lavender cake.
I made a wish,
I made a wish to be with you.
I looked to the left.
I saw a dandelion,
I saw a dandelion on the lawn.
I made a wish,
I made a wish to be with you.
I look straight ahead.
I see you,
I see you right here in front of me.
I made a wish,
I made a wish and it came true.

Wednesday, May 30, 2007

Day Dream
Whenever I day dream,

and day dream I do,
in my secret garden,
I day dream of you.

I day dream of you,
in a faraway land;
embracing me tight
and holding my hand.

Holding my hand,
and touching my face.
Just you and me,
in this peaceful place.

In this peaceful place
a pristine river flows.
Where the unicorns run,
a breeze always blows.

A breeze always blows
and sings of a song;
our love in a place
where you're never gone.

Where you're never gone
is as it would seem,
from dusk until dawn,
whenever I day dream.

And whenever I day dream,
and day dream I do,
in my secret garden,
I day dream of you.

Monday, May 28, 2007

Thinking of you

As i walked outside
And looked up at the sky
It seemed like the clouds wanted to cry
They were so nice
They reminded me of your eyes
Now all i can think of is you
Calling me by your side
As i continue to walk
I couldn't help but to let out a sigh
As tears rolled out of my eyes
And wishing i could be once again by your side

A Dream Come True

Feelings that once were hidden
Are now expressed to you.
Days that once were stormy
Are now the brightest blue.

Times that once were lonely
Are now filled with pleasure.
All that once was mine alone
Are now things we both treasure.

Nights that once were cold
Are now comforting and warm.
Fears that once were very real
Are now gone with the storm.

A heart that once was broken
Can now finally mend.
A person once alone in life
Can now call you a friend.

Dreams that once were longed for
Are now all coming true.
The love I once thought was gone
I have now and forever in you. AdlandPro World's Classifieds
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